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QUESTIONS 1:How do we know things? The problems of epistemology <
– Recollect

by | Apr 26, 2022 | Philosophy | 0 comments

 

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QUESTIONS 1:How do we know things? The problems of epistemology
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– Recollecting truth
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Plato, Meno in Western Philosophy: An Anthology, ed. John Cottingham, 2nd ed.: 3-12, 3rd ed.: 3-12.
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-“I think, therefore I am.”
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René Descartes, Meditations on First Philosophy in Western Philosophy: An Anthology, ed. John
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Cottingham, 2nd ed.: 21-25, 3rd ed.: 22-27. RHQ
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– Experience and universal judgments
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Immanuel Kant, Critique of Pure Reason in Western Philosophy: An Anthology, ed. John Cottingham,
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2nd ed.: 40-43, 3rd ed.: 44-47.
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-Facts depend on each other
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Wilfrid Sellars, The Myth of the Given in Western Philosophy: An Anthology, ed. John Cottingham, 2nd
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ed.: 54-60, 3rd ed.: 68-73.
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QUESTION 2: What is science?
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-The birth of modern science
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Francis Bacon, Novum Organum in Western Philosophy: An Anthology, ed. John Cottingham, 2nd ed.:
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415-421, 3rd ed.: 437-443. RHQ
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-Science is what can be proved wrong
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Karl Popper, Conjectures and Refutations in Western Philosophy: An Anthology, ed. John Cottingham,
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2nd ed.: 453-459, 3rd ed.: 479-485.
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-Scientific revolutions
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Thomas Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions in Western Philosophy: An Anthology, ed. John
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Cottingham, 2nd ed.: 475-481, 3rd ed.: 503-509. RHQ
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QUESTIONS 3: Are we mind, body or both?
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-The soul directs the body
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Plato, Phaedo in Western Philosophy: An Anthology, ed. John Cottingham, 2nd ed.: 203-209, 3rd ed.: 216-
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222. RHQ
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-Mind and body are two ways of describing the same thing
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Benedict Spinoza, Ethics in Western Philosophy: An Anthology, ed. John Cottingham, 2nd ed.: 227-229,
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3rd ed.: 242-245.
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-“Mind” describes what people do in the world
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Gilbert Ryle, The Concept of Mind in Western Philosophy: An Anthology, ed. John Cottingham, 2nd ed.:
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251-256, 3rd ed.: 270-275. RHQ
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-First-person experience
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Thomas Nagel, What is it Like to be a Bat? in Western Philosophy: An Anthology, ed. John Cottingham,
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2nd ed.: 263-268, 3rd ed.: 283-288. RHQ
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-Can computers think?
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John Searle, “Is the Brain’s Mind a Computer?” Scientific American, January 1990, 25-31 (or 25 to the
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middle of 29 is you are pressed for time).
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-Do other people have minds?
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John Stuart Mill, An Examination of Sir William Hamilton’s Philosophy in Western Philosophy: An
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Anthology, ed. John Cottingham, 2nd ed.: 240-244, 3rd ed.: 257-263.
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QUESTION 4: Are we free? Determinism and freedom
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-Can we be free if God knows what will happen?
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Augustine, The City of God in Western Philosophy: An Anthology, ed. John Cottingham, 2nd ed.: 307-312,
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3rd ed.: 328-333. RHQ
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-Are we free to will?
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Thomas Hobbes, The Questions Concerning Liberty and Necessity and Chance in Western Philosophy:
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An Anthology, ed. John Cottingham, 2nd ed.: 312-318, 3rd ed.: 333-339. RHQ
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-Everything is determined
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Pierre Simon de Laplace, Philosophical Essay on Probability in Western Philosophy: An Anthology, ed.
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John Cottingham, 2nd ed.: 318-320, 3rd ed.: 346-348.
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-Condemned to be free
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Jean-Paul Sartre, Being and Nothingness in Western Philosophy: An Anthology, ed. John Cottingham,
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2nd ed.: 320-325, 3rd ed.: 349-354. RHQ
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QUESTION 5 :What happens when we speak? Philosophy of language
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-Abstract ideas
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John Locke, Essay Concerning Human Understanding in Western Philosophy: An Anthology, ed. John
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Cottingham, 2nd ed.: 157-160, 3rd ed.: 169-172. RHQ
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-Expressing sense, referring to things
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Gottlob Frege, Sense and Reference in Western Philosophy: An Anthology, ed. John Cottingham, 2nd ed.:
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170-174, 3rd ed.: 183-187.
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-Doing things with words
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J.L. Austin, Performative Utterances in Western Philosophy: An Anthology, ed. John Cottingham, 2nd
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ed.: 180-184, 3rd ed.: 202-206.
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